Information about the spider
Spiders belong to the animal kingdom, under bi-symmetrical worlds, and under the lower kingdom are protostomes, and they belong to the upper phylum Alphas, phylum Arthropods, under Subphyla Canidae horns, phylum Arachnids, and order Tarantulas.
In addition to spiders, the phylum of arachnids includes moths, ticks, and scorpions.
The body of spiders consists of two main parts: the prosoma (Cephalothorax) or head-thorax, and the abdomen (Abdomen), and they have eight legs, strong jaws, and simple eyes.
There are more than 45,000 known species of spiders that are spread all over the world, and the history of their existence on the surface of the earth dates back to millions of years, and they are somewhat similar to insects, as they belong to the Arthropod phylum.
Spiders are between 0.5-90 mm approximately, the largest of which are tarantula spiders (mygalomorphs) such as the bird-eating spider (goliath bird-eating spider), and the goliath spider (pinkfoot goliath),
As for the smallest species of spiders, they belong to many families found in the tropics, and males and females can be distinguished based on the clear difference between them in size, where the female is much larger than the male, for example, the size of some females of the orb weavers.
Twice the size of the male of the same species.
The upper and lower parts of the prosoma are covered with protective structures; The upper side is covered by the carapace, and the lower side by the sternum, in addition to lower appendages called the labium.
The spider navigates and hunts for prey using more touch, vibration, and taste than vision, but a few have good eyesight for building, hunting, and roaming, as well as identifying mates and predators.
Some species of spiders have 8 eyes and others have six or fewer. The best seeing spiders are: the jumping spider, the long-legged spider, and the tarantula.
The pectoral muscles are attached internally to a point called the fovea in the middle of the spine.
This region consists of two jaws containing fangs called Chelicerae, in addition to an upper plate (The labrum) and a lower plate (The labium) that form the upper and lower parts of the mouth. It also contains a row for cutting food in the upper jaw. .
The spider is able to sense, touch, and taste, as well as mating in males using the pedipalps.
The spider has four pairs of feet, some of which contain two claws, such as: jumping spiders, where these spiders can stand on smooth and inclined surfaces due to the presence of thick tufts of hair that improves the process of adhesion, while others contain three claws; As a network weaver.
Where the limbs and jaws move with the help of muscles.
The ganglia are made up of a group of nerve tissue.
Spiders kill their prey with venom produced by their venom glands.
Liquid food reaches the esophagus, pharynx, and intestines by pumping it out by the muscular stomach or gastrocnemius muscles.
The abdomen of the spider expands when feeding and the development of eggs with the help of the thin and flexible skin that covers it, and when spinning silk and mating, the abdomen moves with the help of the septum that separates it from the prosoma.
clerical lung cover
The book lung covers protect the sensitive organs inside the spider.
After their release from the genital opening, the eggs or sperms reach the reproductive system, which is located in front of the pair of writing lungs, and there is another opening called the opening or external genital organelles (the epigynum) in the spider’s outlaws.
The spider has 4 to 6 spinnerets to produce silk.
The internal organs in the abdomen are
Tarantula spiders have two pairs of book lungs, in which the exchange of gases between air and blood occurs after it enters through small openings covered with a very thin epidermal layer and connected by cavities that end with book-like pages linked to supports that prevent them from sticking to each other.
Some small spiders exchange gases through a thin layer of skin; They do not have respiratory organs because of their presence in moist and sheltered places.
Silk consists of a liquid protein produced by the silk glands.
The heart is located in the center of the spider’s body, where it pumps blood to parts of the body through vessels or cavities, and then gradually returns to it, and the circulatory system is open to it.
Food is absorbed in the hind-gut, which contains a sack of secretory organelles called Malpighian tubules, which play the role of the spider’s kidneys.
The spider’s body consists of internal and external organs; Such as the skin, muscles, respiratory system, digestive system, in addition to the reproductive organs. The skin, epidermis, or hard exoskeleton is characterized as consisting of several layers of protein and chitin that cover the spider’s body from the outside, and its function is to provide attachment points or contact with the muscles.
In addition to regulating blood pressure, it also contains hair and nerve appendages that represent the senses of the spider, lining the anterior and posterior intestines, trachea, and the sperm storage system in females, and the skin reduces water loss by containing a thin layer of wax.
Spiders fix their muscles on a semi-rigid hydrostatic structure that surrounds the spider’s body from the inside, consisting of cavities filled with fluid, and the pressure of the fluid acts as a stabilizer for the muscles around it, to maintain the shape and function of the body, so blood pressure is affected by the change in heart rate, muscle contraction and relaxation.
spider life cycle
The spiders’ life cycle begins with the placement of approximately 1,000 fertilized eggs in a post-mating silk sac, where male spiders place sperm inside their own web, drawing them to the feet to shoot into the genital openings of the female, which they store to select sperm capable and suitable for fertilizing the eggs.
The life cycle of a spider passes through three stages:
This stage occurs after mating, so that the eggs are kept in a strong silk bag to protect them, and the way some spiders care and guard the eggs differs, for example: the mother spider carries the bag with her until it hatches, such as: the wolf spider, and some of them carry them for ten days on their appearance. Others leave the eggs in a safe place to hatch, which usually takes a few weeks.
This stage begins after the eggs hatch into small spiderlings that move away from each other by walking, ballooning, or flying, which enables them to travel short and sometimes long distances, by weaving silk threads that are released from their spindles to blow with the wind. It moves from one place to another.
Over time, the size of small spiders increases through the moulting process, as they replace their exoskeleton several times and get rid of it. The number of moults that occur ranges between 5 to 10 until they reach the stage of maturity.
The spider reaches sexual maturity at the stage of puberty, where a new life cycle begins when mating, and the lifespan of the spider varies according to its species, but it lives from one to two years approximately, and it should be noted that the lifespan of females is longer than males, who often die after mating.